Ferric C. Fang,R. Grant Steen,and Arturo Casadevall
A detailed review of all 2,047
biomedical and life-science research articles indexed by PubMed as
retracted on May 3, 2012
revealed that only 21.3% of retractions
were attributable to error. In contrast, 67.4% of retractions were
misconduct, including fraud or suspected
fraud (43.4%), duplicate publication (14.2%), and plagiarism (9.8%).
uninformative or misleading retraction
announcements have led to a previous underestimation of the role of
fraud in the ongoing
retraction epidemic. The percentage of
scientific articles retracted because of fraud has increased ∼10-fold
since 1975. Retractions
exhibit distinctive temporal and
geographic patterns that may reveal underlying causes.