J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 23;277(34):30901-13. Epub 2002 May 31.
Identification of Glis1, a novel Gli-related, Kruppel-like zinc finger protein containing transactivation and repressor functions.
Cell Biology Section, Division of Intramural Research, NIEHS/National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of a novel Krüppel-like protein named Gli-similar 1 (Glis1). The Glis1 gene encodes an 84.3-kDa proline-rich protein. Its five tandem zinc finger motifs exhibit highest homology with those of members of the Gli and Zic subfamilies of Krüppel-like proteins. Glis1 was mapped to mouse chromosome 4C6. Northern blot analysis showed that expression of the 3.3-kb Glis1 mRNA is most abundant in placenta and adult kidney and expressed at lower levels in testis. Whole mount in situ hybridization on mouse embryos demonstrated that Glis1 is expressed in a temporal and spatial manner during development; expression was most prominent in several defined structures of mesodermal lineage, including craniofacial regions, branchial arches, somites, vibrissal and hair follicles, limb buds, and myotomes. Confocal microscopic analysis showed that Glis1 is localized to the nucleus. The zinc finger region plays an important role in the nuclear localization of Glis1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that Glis1 is able to bind oligonucleotides containing the Gli-binding site consensus sequence GACCACCCAC. Although monohybrid analysis showed that in several cell types Glis1 was unable to induce transcription of a reporter, deletion mutant analysis revealed the presence of a strong activation function at the carboxyl terminus of Glis1. The activation through this activation function was totally suppressed by a repressor domain at its amino terminus. Constitutively active Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin kinase IV enhanced Glis1-mediated transcriptional activation about 4-fold and may be mediated by phosphorylation/activation of a co-activator. Our results suggest that Glis1 may play a critical role in the control of gene expression during specific stages of embryonic development.
↓ こちらがNatureの本編Direct reprogramming of somatic cells is promoted by maternal transcription factor Glis1
Momoko Maekawa,Kei Yamaguchi,Tomonori Nakamura,Ran Shibukawa,Ikumi Kodanaka,Tomoko Ichisaka,Yoshifumi Kawamura,Hiromi Mochizuki,Naoki Goshima & Shinya Yamanaka
Nature 474, 225–229 (09 June 2011)
Received 25 May 2010
Accepted 11 April 2011
Published online 08 June 2011
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are generated from somatic cells by the transgenic expression of three transcription factors collectively called OSK: Oct3/4 (also called Pou5f1), Sox2 and Klf41. However, the conversion to iPSCs is inefficient. The proto-oncogene Myc enhances the efficiency of iPSC generation by OSK but it also increases the tumorigenicity of the resulting iPSCs2. Here we show that the Gli-like transcription factor Glis1 (Glis family zinc finger 1) markedly enhances the generation of iPSCs from both mouse and human fibroblasts when it is expressed together with OSK. Mouse iPSCs generated using this combination of transcription factors can form germline-competent chimaeras. Glis1 is enriched in unfertilized oocytes and in embryos at the one-cell stage. DNA microarray analyses show that Glis1 promotes multiple pro-reprogramming pathways, including Myc, Nanog, Lin28, Wnt, Essrb and the mesenchymal–epithelial transition. These results therefore show that Glis1 effectively promotes the direct reprogramming of somatic cells during iPSC generation.